The higher education system in India includes both private and public (govt) universities.
Public universities are supported by the Government of India and the state governments, while private universities are mostly supported by various bodies and societies.
Universities in India are recognised by the University Grants Commission (UGC), which draws its power from the University Grants Commission Act, 1956. In addition, Different Professional Councils like AICTE, MCI, ICAR, NCTE etc. are established, controlling different aspects of accreditation and co-ordination.
Types of Universities
Types of Universities
- Central University
- Central universities are established by an Act of Parliament and are under the purview of the Department of Higher Education in the Ministry of Education, except for some universities which are under the purview of other ministries..
- State University
- State universities are run by the state government of each of the states and territories of India and are usually established by a local legislative assembly act. Most State Universities are affiliating universities administering many affiliated colleges (often located in small towns) that typically offer a range of undergraduate courses, but may also offer post-graduate courses. More established colleges may even offer PhD programs in some departments with the approval of the affiliating university.
- Deemed University or “Deemed to be University”
- “Deemed to be University” is a status of autonomy granted by the Department of Higher Education on the advice of the UGC, under Section 3 of the UGC Act.
- Private University
- Private universities are approved by the UGC. They can grant degrees but they are not allowed to have off-campus affiliated colleges.
- Institutes of National Importance
- Institutes of National Importance Apart from the above universities, other institutions are granted the permission to autonomously award degrees. However, they do not affiliate colleges and are not officially called “universities” but “autonomous organizations” or “autonomous institutes”. They fall under the administrative control of the Department of Higher Education. These organisations include the Indian Institutes of Information Technology, Indian Institutes of Technology, the National Institutes of Technology, the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research, the Indian Institutes of Management and other autonomous institutes.
- Institutes Under Control of Professional Councils
- Institutes which are under the control of the professional councils, without an approval of the UGC, e.g. Agricultural Universities, which are under the control of the Agricultural Education Division of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
List of Universities
As of 01 January 2023, the list of central universities published by the UGC includes 56 active central universities.
As of 16 November 2022, the UGC lists 127 institutes which were granted the deemed to be university status.
As of 16 November 2022, the UGC lists 459 state universities.
As of 25 November 2022, the UGC consolidated list of universities lists 430 private universities.